Here’s a characteristic gross appearance of a typical large intestine with extensive Ulcerative colitis in a young female, who suffered from the disease for 4 years.
Hundreds of pseudopolyps can be seen clearly as raised red islands of inflamed mucosa.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory and ulcerative disease that arises from the bowel mucosa and is characterized by bloody diarrhea, pain, and fever. It typically remains localized to the rectum or extends upwards to involve other parts, sometimes the entire colon, as one continuous inflammatory lesion.
The inflammation affects the mucosa and submucosa, and there is a sharp border between normal and affected tissue, clearly seen in the case above.
The ileocecal valve is seen at the lower left and just above this valve in the cecum is the beginning of the mucosal inflammation with erythema and granularity.
As the disease progresses, the mucosal erosions coalesce to linear ulcers that undermine remaining mucosa.
Diagnosis is made by sigmoidoscopy with biopsy.
Total colectomy is curative of both the intestinal symptoms and of the potential risk of colorectal carcinomas.