LIPIDS METABOLISM


LIPIDS METABOLISM


(1) An 18-year-old obese woman maintains a sedentary lifestyle and eats a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. This leads to increased fatty acid synthesis(lipogenesis) and obesity. The following statements correctly describes lipogenesis:

(2) A 16-year old girl presents with extreme slenderness. She is diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. in this patient, breakdown of fatty acids is required to provide energy. Before being oxidized, fatty acids are activated in the cytosol to form the following:

(3) After surgical resection of part of her small intestine, fat cannot be properly absorbed.The following is the active substrate for fatty_acid oxidation:

(4) An infant is born with a high forehead, abnormal eye folds, and deformed ear lobes and shows little muscle tone and movement. After multiple tests, he is diagnosed with a disorder caused by peroxisome malformation. The following fatty acids are expected to accumulate in patients with defective peroxisomes:

(5) A 4-month-old infant presents with a seizure. The infant is found to be profoundly hypoglycemic and have low ketones. Short-chain dicarboxylic acids are found to be elevated in the serum. The following is most likely enzyme efficiency:

(6) A 12-year-old boy presents with Jamaican vomiting syndrome, abdominal pain, and is profoundly hypoglycemic. His sickness is caused by ingestion a toxin hypoglycin,which interferes with normal fatty acid oxidation. The following is primary role of carnitine:

(7) A 55-year-old woman presents with crushing substernal chest pain and shortness of breath. Myocardial infarction is diagnosed. High serum HDL levels are protective against the development of atherosclerosis because HDL does the following:

(8) A 41-year-old woman_presents with severe, sharp epigastric abdominal pain that radiates to her back and with nuausea and vomiting. Laboratory results indicate an elevated serum triacylglycerol levels. To form triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol, the following compounds is also required:

(9) The following are ketone bodies:

(10) A 30-year old man has been trapped in earth quake rubbles several days. His brain has reduced its need glucose by using which of the following substances as an alternate source of energy:

(11) The enzyme thiolase catalyzes the conversion of:

(12) A 7-year old girl is brought to emergency department by her parents with complaints of severe polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory examination reveals ketones in her urine. The following is the most likely source of ketones:

(13) The following statements correctly describes bile salts:

(14) The following statement best describes fatty acid synthase complex:

(15) The end product of fatty acid synthesis in mammals is:

(16) For the activation of fatty acids the energy source required is:

(17) The following is the product of fatty acid oxidation:

(18) The abundance of the following inhibits beta oxidation:

(19) A 25-year-old woman _presents with a low red blood cell count, corneal opacities and kidney insufficiency. She is diagnosed with lecithin Cholesterol acyl transfrase (LCAT) deficiency. The LCAT is involved :

(20) Statins are comepetitive inhibitors o HMG-CoA reductse, which converts HMG-CoA to the following:

(21) An obese 55-year-old woman lost 10 pounds over the last month after the surgery due to mobilization f fat stores to provide acetyl CoA and energy. When stearic acid is oxidized, the following number of acetyl CoA molecules are reduced:

(22) To form triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol, the following compound is required:

(23) Deficiency of enzyme "Hexoaminidase A"causes the following disease:

(24) A 40-year-old man presents with chest pain that radiates to his left jaw and shoulder. He is diagnosed with a myocardial infarction and is prescribed a statin medication. Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA rcductase, which converts HMG-CoA to the following:

(25) Very long chain fatty acids are synthesized in the :

(26) A 40-year-old man presents with severe pain in his legs upon walking. He is diagnosed with atherosclerotic plaques in arteries of his legs. High levels of cholesterol and LDL contribute to formation of atherosclerosis. The oxidized form of LDL triggers the process of atherosclerosis. The following is the most important structural component of LDL:

(27) A teenager, concerned about his weight, attempts to maintain a fat-free diet for a period of several weeks. If his ability to synthesize various lipids were examined, he would be found to be most deficient in his ability to synthesize:

(28) After surgical removal of part of her small intestine, a 40-year old woman is diagnosed with short bowel syndrome. In which, fat cannot be properly absorbed, so long-chain fatty acids are mobilized from adipose tissue to generate energy. The following is the substrate for fatty acid oxidation:

(29) Triacylglycerol molecules stored in adipose tissue represent the major reserve of substrate providing energy during a prolonged fast. During such a fast :

(30) A fully saturated long chain fatty acid (16:0) can be further elongated by addition of the carbon units in the :

(31) Following hormone is derived from Cholesterol:

(32) The following is required for synthesis of cAMP:

(33) Mevalonate is the precursor of cholesterol, it has the following no of carbon molecules:

(34) Rate limiting enzyme involved in the cholesterol synthesis is:

(35) Free fatty acid released from adipose tissue are transported in the blood by:

(36) Complete oxidation of palmitic acid yields the following no of Atp molecules:

(37) All glycerol containing lipids are synthesized from :

(38) Major energy source for the brain normally is:

(39) In alpha oxidation of fatty acids one of the following product is released:

(40) LCAT activity is associated with one of the following lipoprotein complex:

(41) Following are utilized as coenzymes in beta oxidation of fatty acids:

(42) In which of the following tissues glucose transport into the cell is insulin-sensitive :

(43) A 19 year old woman brought to the emergency room complaining of dizziness.She had skipped breakfast and lunch. Following examination,the patient was given orange juice and immediately felt better. One of the following best describes “The patient has”:

(44) The most important source of reducing equivalents for fatty acids synthesis in liver:

(45) Beta oxidation of odd chain fatty acid produces :

(46) Carnitine is synthesized from: