(1) Spike potentials :

(2) Meissner's plexus :

(3) Gastrin :

(4) Respiration is inhibited during which stage of swallowing :

(5) The enzyme present in the saliva is :

(6) The most important stimulus for the release of cholecystokinin is :

(7) The rate of Bile secretion is :

(8) The motor activity of the stomach is stimulated by :

(9) Hydrochloric acid in the stomach is secreted by :

(10) Activation of which of the following is normally associated with contraction of the smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tract:

(11) The statement which is true for slow-wave electrical potentials in the gastrointestinal smooth muscle is :

(12) The factor which is the most likely to decrease the number of spike potentials generated in gastrointestinal smooth muscle is:

(13) Atrophic gastritis is often associated with :

(14) Inhibition of myenteric plexus leads to :

(15) In small intestine, peristalsis:

(16) Lack of adequate acid secretion by the gastric glands of stomach has greatest effect on the digestion of :

(17) A new mother calls the pediatrician because she is concerned that her infant defecates after every meal. Which of the following is cause of these normal bowel movements in newborns:

(18) A 28 year old woman recently gave birth to her second child by cesarean delivery, she is now experiencing both urinary and fecal incontinance during straining maneuver. A pudendal nerve conduction test indicates that the pundendal nerve is the cuase of the fecal incontinence. which sphincter is likely affected:

(19) The principle function of the ileocecal valve is to:

(20) Gastric pressure seldom rises above the levels that breach the lower esophageal sphincter, even when the stomach is filled with a meal due to which of the following processes:

(21) The cephalic phase of gastric secretion:

(22) Digestion of which of the following foodstuffs is impaired to the greatest extent in patient with achlorhydria:

(23) Biopsies are taken from the antral and duodenal mucosa of a 65-year-old women. Which of the following hormones can be found in tissue homogenates from both locations:

(24) Migrating motility complexes (MMC) occur about every 90 min between meals and are thought to be trigerred by the gastrointestinal hormone:

(25) Swallowing is a complex process that involves signaling between the pharynx and swallowing center in the brain stem. Which of the following structures is critical for determining whether a bolus of food is small enough to be swallowed:

(26) Mass movements constitute an important intestinal event that lead to bowel movements.Mass movements cause which of the following:

(27) A 19 year old man is fed intravenously for several weeks following a severe automobile accident ,the intravenous feeding leads to artrophy of the gastrointestinal mucosa most likely because the blood level of which of the following hormones is reduced :

(28) The secretion which has the lowest pH is :

(29) Normal swallowing is dependent on the integrity of :

(30) The gastric antrum releases a peptide that inhibits gastrin release ,The peptide is:

(31) A 26 year old male presents to the emergency room with a 48-hour bout of dirrhea with steatorrhea.Which of the following best accounts for the appearance of excess fats in the stool:

(32) A 37 year old male presents with dehydration and hypokalemic-metabolic acidosis. This acid base and electrolyte disorder can occur with excess fluid loss from which of the following organs:

(33) An 18 year old man with the pernicious anemia lacks intrisic factor, which is necessary for the absorption of cyanocobalamin. Vitamin B12 is absorbed primarily in which portion of the GIT:

(34) Sour taste sensation is associated with :

(35) A 40 year old man present with sypmtoms of gastrointestinal discomfort and feeling of pressure in his chest.Radiographic findings indicates distension of lower esophagus which is most likely caused by failure of receptive relaxation of gastroesophageal sphincter. which of the following conditions best fits this discription :

(36) BILE is stored in:

(37) Which of the following taste sensation of the most sensitive:

(38) Which of the following is true regarding contraction of the gallbladder following a meal:

(39) A 37 year old male presents with dehydration and hypokalemic-metabolic acidosis. This acid base and electrolyte disorder can occur with excess fluid loss from which of the following organs:

(40) Ileal resection is most likely to cause:

(41) A 65-year-old man eats a healthy meal ,approximately 40 min later the ileocecal sphincter relexes and chyme moves into the cecum.Gastric distention leads to relaxation of the ileocecal sphincter by way of which reflex:

(42) The pro-enzyme pepsinogen is secreted mainly from :

(43) Stimulation of sub-mucosal plexus results in increase in which of the following:

(44) The enterogastric reflex can be elicited by:

(45) A mother brings her 3 year old son to the clinic.He had watery stools for a day.He appears to be weak and dehyrated.He is treated with a rehydration fluid containing glucose and electrolytes.which mechanism is most important for the absorption of this solution from the gestrointestinal tract:

(46) In infants,defecation often follows a meal.The colonic contraction in this case is through gastro-colic reflex.The hormone involved in this reflex:

(47) A 42 year old obese female presents to the emergency department with right upper quadrant pain,nausea and vomiting. Ultrasound images are suggestive of gall stones with cystic duct obstruction. Which of the following is the primary phyiological stimulus for contaction of gall bladder in the digestive period:

(48) Activation of which of the following is normally associated with increased secretions in gastrointestinal tract:

(49) Gastric emptying is regulated to ensure that chyme enters the duodenum at appropriate rate.which of the following factors promotes gastric emptying:

(50) Bile helps in fat digestion and absorption by emulsification.which of the following component of bile is most important for this function:

(51) Water and salt absorption mainly takes place in:

(52) The gastric acid hyper secretion can be explained by an increase in the plasma concentration of which of the following hormone:

(53) Hunger pangs:

(54) Segmentation contractions:

(55) Parasympathetic defecation reflex:

(56) Gastric emptying time is decreased by:

(57) The rate of gastric emptying increases with increase in:

(58) A patient with diabetes mellitus presents with gastroesophageal reflux disease accompanying gastroparesis.which of the following statement about gastric emptying is correct:

(59) Mass movements in the intestines occur:

(60) Compared to plasma saliva has the highest relative concentration of which of the following ions under basal conditions:

(61) Defecation is a reflex action: