DIGESTION & ACID BASE


DIGESTION,ABSORPTION & ACID BASE BALANCE


(1) The following is the effect of colecytokinin released from mucosal cells of jejunum:

(2) Secretion of HCL and gastric juice is regulated by the hormones:

(3) For the digestion of strach, enzyme is present in:

(4) The following is true reagrding digestion & absorption of lipids:

(5) The following can be taken by enterocytes without aid of micelles:

(6) Phospholipase A2 is activated by:

(7) Dehydration may be cause by:

(8) Most prodominant intracellular anion is:

(9) The enzyme is responsible for breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids and mono aclyglycerol in the intestine:

(10) The following is a function of bile salt in the intensine:

(11) The following enzymes often malfunctions in disease associated with the symptoms of high blood triglyceride levels and steatorrhea:

(12) The anti-obesity drug ORLISTATE inhibits:

(13) In the liver of substential proportion of the activity of the following enzyme is memebrane bound:

(14) Comlpete oxidation of palmitic acid yeilds the following number of the net ATP molecules:

(15) Following are mainly digested in stomach:

(16) The following best describe the peptic/chief cell:

(17) The following causes the emulsification of lipids in intestines:

(18) In the saliva, the following is the main digestive enzyme:

(19) The following is an exopeptidase:

(20) The lipid digestion process is regulated by different local hormones. The cholecystokinin hormone is released from:

(21) Lack of appropriate lipid absorption leads to condition known as:

(22) The following type of transport mechanism is utilized by glucosefor gastrointestinal absorption:

(23) A young dehydrated afebrile man developed ,bloating and diarrhea after participating in an ice cream eating contest at a birthday party. This clinical picture is most probably due to deficiency in the activity of:

(24) A bicarbonate rich solution is released by pancrease into the intensine in response to:

(25) A baby girl a few days old had a projectile vomiting since birth due to pyloric stenosis. Her blood relults were as follows: Plasma: Sodium 137 mmol/L, ( 135-145), Potassium 3.0 mmol/L, (3.5-5), Bicarbonate 40mmol/L, Chloride 82 mmol/L, Arterial blood gases: pH 7.52 ( 7.35-7.45), PaCO2 6.2 kPa (4.6-6.0), paO2 12.9 kPa (9.3-13.3) These results are suggestive of :

(26) During metabolic acidosis, the kidney excrete NH4+, which contains:

(27) Respiratory Alkalosis occurs in the following condition:

(28) 24-year female reported to the emergency with difficulty in breathing. History revealed that she had ingested some unknown drug. The blood chemistry revealed the following: pH 7.1; PCO2 55mmHg; HCO3- 17meq/L. The following is the most appropriate acid base imbalance in the above said condition:

(29) A 74 year old woman underwent a left total knee replacement and had received 5L of 5% dextrose intravenously . She had the following post-operative results Plasma: Sodium 117mmol/L (135-145), Potassium 3.7 mmol/L(3.5-5.0), Urea 3.4 mmol/L ( 2.5-7.0) The pre-operative results were as follows: Sodium 138 mmol/L. ( 135-145). Potassium 4.2 mmol/L(3.5-5.0), Urea 5.6 mmol/L ( 2.5-7.0) She is most likely suffering from:

(30) A 74 year old man presented to his general practitioner with weight loss. He had smoked 20 cigarettes per day for 55 years. Chest radiograph showed a left upper lobe shadow, and bronchoscope confirmed a primary lung carcinoma. His blood pressure was 132/8OmmHg and clinically he was euvolemic. His sodium levels were 112mmol/L ( 135-145). Following is the most likely cause of severe hyponatremia:

(31) A 5O year old chronic alcoholic is brought to emergency department in a semiconscious state . Blood pressure is 100/50 mmHg, heart rate 20 beats /min, respiratory rate 35/min. temperature is 104°F .Blood chemistry reveals : sodium 150meq/L(135-145),potassium 2.5meq/L(3.5-5). chloride 107 meq/1.,(95-105), bicarbonate 10 meq/L(24-26), pH 7.2(7.35-7.45) ,PCO2 25mmHg(35-45), alcohol 40 mmol/L(0), osmolality 370 mOsm/L(280-295), glucose 50mg/dL(60-110) BUN 40 mg/dL (5-22). The following is the acid-base status:

(32) Most predominant extracellular cation is: